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However, an article published by the Wall Street Journal credits the German auto parts company ZF Friedrichshafen for the invention, which would have occurred shortly after World War I.

In , both REO and General Motors developed semi-automatic transmissions that were less difficult to operate than a fully manual unit. These designs, however, continued to use a clutch to engage the engine with the transmission.

The General Motors unit, dubbed the "Automatic Safety Transmission", was notable in that it employed a power-shifting planetary gearbox that was hydraulically controlled and was sensitive to road speed, anticipating future development.

Invented early in the 20th century, the fluid coupling was the answer to the question of how to avoid stalling the engine when the vehicle was stopped with the transmission in gear.

Chrysler itself never used the fluid coupling with any of its automatic transmissions, but did use it in conjunction with a hybrid manual transmission called " Fluid Drive " the similar Hy-Drive used a torque converter.

Available as an option on Oldsmobiles and later Cadillacs , the Hydra-Matic combined a fluid coupling with three hydraulically controlled planetary gearsets to produce four forward speeds plus reverse.

The transmission was sensitive to engine throttle position and road speed, producing fully automatic up- and down-shifting that varied according to operating conditions.

It also found use during World War II in some military vehicles. From to , Lincoln cars were also available with the Hydra-Matic.

Mercedes-Benz subsequently devised a four-speed fluid coupling transmission that was similar in principle to the Hydra-Matic, but of a different design.

In , GM introduced the "Jetaway" Hydra-Matic, which was different in design than the older model. Addressing the issue of shift quality, which was an ongoing problem with the original Hydra-Matic, the new transmission utilized two fluid couplings, the primary one that linked the transmission to the engine, and a secondary one that replaced the clutch assembly that controlled the forward gearset in the original.

The result was much smoother shifting, especially from first to second gear, but with a loss in efficiency and an increase in complexity.

Another innovation for this new style Hydra-Matic was the appearance of a Park position on the selector. The original Hydra-Matic, which continued in production until the mids, still used the reverse position for parking pawl engagement.

Each of these transmissions had only two forward speeds, relying on the converter for additional torque multiplication.

In the early s, BorgWarner developed a series of three-speed torque converter automatics for American Motors , Ford Motor Company , Studebaker , and several other manufacturers in the US and other countries.

Chrysler was late in developing its own true automatic, introducing the two-speed torque converter PowerFlite in , and the three-speed TorqueFlite in The latter was the first to utilize the Simpson compound planetary gearset.

General Motors produced multiple-turbine torque converters from to These included the Twin-Turbine Dynaflow and the triple-turbine Turboglide transmissions.

The shifting took place in the torque converter, rather than through pressure valves and changes in planetary gear connections.

Each turbine was connected to the drive shaft through a different gear train. These phased from one ratio to another according to demand, rather than shifting.

The Turboglide actually had two speed ratios in reverse, with one of the turbines rotating backwards. By the late s, most of the fluid-coupling four-speed and two-speed transmissions had disappeared in favor of three-speed units with torque converters.

Also around this time, whale oil was removed from automatic transmission fluid. Many transmissions also adopted the lock-up torque converter a mechanical clutch locking the torque converter pump and turbine together to eliminate slip at cruising speed to improve fuel economy.

Some manufacturers use a separate computer dedicated to the transmission called a transmission control unit TCU , also known as the transmission control module TCM , which shares information with the engine management computer.

In this case, solenoids turned on and off by the computer control shift patterns and gear ratios, rather than the spring-loaded valves in the valve body.

This allows for more precise control of shift points, shift quality, lower shift times, and on some newer cars semi-automatic control, where the driver tells the computer when to shift.

The result is an impressive combination of efficiency and smoothness. The predominant form of automatic transmission is hydraulically operated; using a fluid coupling or torque converter, and a set of planetary gearsets to provide a range of gear ratios.

Hydraulic automatic transmissions consist of three major components: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the transmission.

This takes the place of a friction clutch in a manual transmission. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling , in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing breakaway acceleration.

A fluid coupling works well when both the impeller and turbine are rotating at similar speeds, but it is very inefficient at initial acceleration, where rotational speeds are very different.

This torque multiplication is accomplished with a third member in the coupling assembly known as the stator , which acts to modify the fluid flow depending on the relative rotational speeds of the impeller and turbine.

The stator itself does not rotate, but its vanes are so shaped that when the impeller which is driven by the engine is rotating at a high speed and the turbine which receives the transmitted power is spinning at a low speed, the fluid flow hits the vanes of the turbine in a way that multiplies the torque being applied.

This causes the turbine to begin spinning faster as the vehicle accelerates ideally , and as the relative rotational speeds equalize, the torque multiplication diminishes.

Consisting of planetary gear sets as well as clutches and bands. These are the mechanical systems that provide the various gear ratios , altering the speed of rotation of the output shaft depending on which planetary gears are locked.

To effect gear changes, one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gearset motionless, while allowing another member to rotate, thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios.

Operating much as a ratchet, it transmits torque only in one direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in the other. Bands are used for braking; the GM Turbo-Hydramatics incorporated this.

Not to be confused with the impeller inside the torque converter, the pump is typically a gear pump mounted between the torque converter and the planetary gearset.

It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which is needed for transmission components to operate.

Early automatic transmissions also had a rear pump for towing purposes, ensuring the lubrication of the rear-end components.

The governor is connected to the output shaft and regulates the hydraulic pressure depending on the vehicle speed.

Modern designs have replaced the mechanical governor with an electronic speed sensor and computer software. The engine load is monitored either by a throttle cable or a vacuum modulator.

The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons.

The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator to control which ratio is selected on the gearset; as the vehicle and engine change speed, the difference between the pressures changes, causing different sets of valves to open and close.

The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators, thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gearset to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions.

However, in many modern automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic [engine control unit] ECU or a separate transmission control unit TCU, also known as transmission control module TCM.

Primarily made from refined petroleum, and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages.

The multitude of parts, along with the complex design of the valve body, originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated and expensive to build and repair than manual transmissions.

In most cars except US family, luxury, sport-utility vehicle, and minivan models they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason.

Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap. In some modern cars, computers use sensors on the engine to detect throttle position, vehicle speed, engine speed, engine load, etc.

The computer transmits the information via solenoids that redirect the fluid the appropriate clutch or servo to control shifting. A fundamentally different type of automatic transmission is the continuously variable transmission , or CVT , which can smoothly and steplessly alter its gear ratio by varying the diameter of a pair of belt or chain -linked pulleys , wheels or cones.

Some continuously variable transmissions use a hydrostatic drive — consisting of a variable displacement pump and a hydraulic motor — to transmit power without gears.

Some early forms, such as the Hall system which dates back to [10] , used a fixed displacement pump and a variable displacement motor, and were designed to provide robust variable transmission for early commercial heavy motor vehicles.

These concepts provide zero and reverse gear ratios. In this system, the transmission has fixed gears, but the ratio of wheel-speed to engine-speed can be continuously varied by controlling the speed of the third input to a differential using motor-generators.

A dual-clutch transmission , or DCT sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch transmission or double-clutch transmission , is a modern type of semi-automatic transmission and electrohydraulic manual transmission.

It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets. It can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions with their respective clutches contained within one housing, and working as one unit.

Also known as semi-automatic transmission SAT and several other names, this automatic transmission type utilizes a regular clutch and gear setup but automates the action by the use of sensors, actuators, processors, and pneumatics.

Fuel efficiency is their top priority and it rivals that of manual transmissions. AMT is based on an electronic control unit and a hydraulic system that supervise the use of the clutch and the gear shifting, allowing the driver to change gear without using the clutch, either sequentially or fully automatically.

Conventionally, in order to select the transmission operating mode, the driver moves a selection lever located either on the steering column or on the floor as with a manual on the floor, except that automatic selectors on the floor do not move in the same type of pattern as manual levers do.

In order to select modes, or to manually select specific gear ratios, the driver must push a button in called the shift-lock button or pull the handle only on column mounted shifters out.

Some vehicles position selector buttons for each mode on the cockpit instead, freeing up space on the central console. Depending on the model and make of the transmission, these controls can take several forms.

However most include the following:. Most automatic transmissions include some means of forcing a downshift Throttle kickdown into the lowest possible gear ratio if the throttle pedal is fully depressed.

In many older designs, kickdown is accomplished by mechanically actuating a valve inside the transmission.

Most modern designs use a solenoid -operated valve that is triggered by a switch on the throttle linkage or by the engine control unit ECU in response to an abrupt increase in engine power.

Mode selection allows the driver to choose between preset shifting programs. For example, Economy mode saves fuel by upshifting at lower engine speeds, while Sport mode aka "Power" or "Performance" delays upshifting for maximum acceleration.

Some transmission units also have Winter mode, where higher gear ratios are chosen to keep revs as low as possible while on slippery surfaces.

The modes also change how the computer responds to throttle input. Conventionally, automatic transmissions have selector positions that allow the driver to limit the maximum ratio that the transmission may engage.

On older transmissions, this was accomplished by a mechanical lockout in the transmission valve body preventing an upshift until the lockout was disengaged; on computer-controlled transmissions, the same effect is accomplished by firmware.

The transmission can still upshift and downshift automatically between the remaining ratios: Some transmissions will still upshift automatically into the higher ratio if the engine reaches its maximum permissible speed in the selected range [ citation needed ].

The king tried the effect of taking away the heart, and found that the mouth could no longer speak; he took away the liver and the eyes could no longer see; he took away the kidneys and the legs lost their power of locomotion.

The king was delighted. The manufacturing tradition of automata continued in the Greek world well into the Middle Ages. In the mid-8th century, the first wind powered automata were built: There were metal birds that sang automatically on the swinging branches of this tree built by Muslim inventors and engineers.

Al-Jazari described complex programmable humanoid automata amongst other machines he designed and constructed in the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs cams that bump into little levers that operate the percussion.

The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and drum patterns if the pegs were moved around. Fowler, the automata were a "robot band " which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection.

Al-Jazari constructed a hand washing automaton first employing the flush mechanism now used in modern toilets. It features a female automaton standing by a basin filled with water.

When the user pulls the lever, the water drains and the automaton refills the basin. Rosheim describes it as follows: When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!

Samarangana Sutradhara , a Sanskrit treatise by Bhoja 11th century , includes a chapter about the construction of mechanical contrivances automata , including mechanical bees and birds, fountains shaped like humans and animals, and male and female dolls that refilled oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and re-enacted scenes from Hindu mythology.

Villard de Honnecourt , in his s sketchbook, show plans for animal automata and an angel that perpetually turns to face the sun. At the end of the thirteenth century, Robert II, Count of Artois built a pleasure garden at his castle at Hesdin that incorporated several automata as entertainment in the walled park.

The work was conducted by local workmen and overseen by the Italian knight Renaud Coignet. It included monkey marionettes, a sundial supported by lions and "wild men", mechanized birds, mechanized fountains and a bellows-operated organ.

The park was famed for its automata well into the fifteenth century before it was destroyed by English soldiers in the sixteenth.

The Renaissance witnessed a considerable revival of interest in automata. Giovanni Fontana created mechanical devils and rocket-propelled animal automata.

Numerous clockwork automata were manufactured in the 16th century, principally by the goldsmiths of the Free Imperial Cities of central Europe.

These wondrous devices found a home in the cabinet of curiosities or Wunderkammern of the princely courts of Europe. Hydraulic and pneumatic automata, similar to those described by Hero, were created for garden grottoes.

Leonardo da Vinci sketched a more complex automaton around the year The robot could, if built successfully, move its arms, twist its head, and sit up.

The monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand, turning and nodding his head, rolling his eyes, and mouthing silent obsequies.

From time to time, he brings the cross to his lips and kisses it. A new attitude towards automata is to be found in Descartes when he suggested that the bodies of animals are nothing more than complex machines - the bones, muscles and organs could be replaced with cogs, pistons and cams.

Thus mechanism became the standard to which Nature and the organism was compared. Thus, in , when Louis XIV was still a child, an artisan named Camus designed for him a miniature coach, and horses complete with footmen, page and a lady within the coach; all these figures exhibited a perfect movement.

Labat, General de Gennes constructed, in , in addition to machines for gunnery and navigation, a peacock that walked and ate.

Athanasius Kircher produced many automata to create Jesuit shows, including a statue which spoke and listened via a speaking tube. He also constructed the Digesting Duck , a mechanical duck that gave the false illusion of eating and defecating, seeming to endorse Cartesian ideas that animals are no more than machines of flesh.

In , a chess-playing machine called the Turk , created by Wolfgang von Kempelen , made the rounds of the courts of Europe purporting to be an automaton.

The Turk was operated from inside by a hidden human director, and was not a true automaton. Maillardet, a Swiss mechanic, created an automaton capable of drawing four pictures and writing three poems.

According to philosopher Michel Foucault , Frederick the Great , king of Prussia from to , was "obsessed" with automata. Automata, particularly watches and clocks, were popular in China during the 18th and 19th centuries, and items were produced for the Chinese market.

Strong interest by Chinese collectors in the 21st century brought many interesting items to market where they have had dramatic realizations.

In , Italian inventor Innocenzo Manzetti constructed a flute -playing automaton, in the shape of a man, life-size, seated on a chair.

The automaton was powered by clockwork and could perform 12 different arias. As part of the performance it would rise from the chair, bow its head, and roll its eyes.

The period to is known as "The Golden Age of Automata". During this period many small family based companies of Automata makers thrived in Paris.

From their workshops they exported thousands of clockwork automata and mechanical singing birds around the world. It is these French automata that are collected today, although now rare and expensive they attract collectors worldwide.

Contemporary automata continue this tradition with an emphasis on art, rather than technological sophistication. Some mechanized toys developed during the 18th and 19th centuries were automata made with paper.

Despite the relative simplicity of the material, paper automata require a high degree of technical ingenuity.

The potential educational value of mechanical toys in teaching transversal skills has been recognised by the European Union education project Clockwork objects, enhanced learning: Examples of automaton clocks include Chariot clock and Cuckoo Clocks.

The Cuckooland Museum exhibits autonomous clocks. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with automation as a process.

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